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force couple

Biomechanical principle whereby two or more muscles acting in different directions influence the rotation of a joint in a specific direction. When the forces are of equal magnitude and in opposite directions, the limb will rotate about its long axis. SEE: biomechanics.

forced duction test

A test used in ophthalmology to assess whether eye elevation or movements of the inferior muscles of the eye are restricted as a result of an injury, e.g., of an orbital floor fracture. Used to determine if an ocular deviation is mechanically restricted versus paretic.


(for′sĕps, for′seps″) pl. forceps [L. forceps, pincers, tongs] A two-bladed hinged or spring-loaded instrument for holding and manipulating tissues.

alligator f. A straight or angled forceps with jawlike movement at its end.

Allis f. SEE: under Allis, Oscar Huntington.

artery f. An atraumatic forceps with teeth that will not injure the vessel; used for temporary occlusion of a vessel.

axis-traction f. An obstetrical forceps fitted with a handle that makes it possible to provide traction in line with the direction in which the head must be moved.

bone f. A heavy-duty forceps for cutting bone and removing bone fragments.

brain f. Obstetrical f.

capsule f. A forceps for making an opening in the anterior capsule of the lens during cataract surgery.

Chamberlen f. SEE: Chamberlen forceps.

clamp f. Any forceps with an automatic lock.

dental f. Any of several forceps of varying shapes for grasping teeth during extraction procedures.

dressing f. A smooth forceps for dressing wounds or inserting drainage tubes.

Graefe f. SEE: under Graefe, Albrecht von.

grasping f. A forceps with a strong beaked end, used for seizing body tissues, foreign bodies, or removing objects such as stones from organs.

Halsted f. SEE: under Halsted, William Stewart.

intestinal f. A forceps used in abdominal surgeries to temporarily block the large or small bowel without crushing them.

Knapp f. SEE: Knapp forceps.

Magill f. SEE: Magill forceps.

mosquito f. A smaller variety of a Halsted forceps, having a curved or straight, fine-pointed tip.

needle f. A forceps for grasping and holding a needle.

obstetrical f. A forceps for extracting the fetal head from the pelvis during delivery. In obstetrics, forceps application is classified according to the position of the fetal head when the forceps are applied, i.e., outlet forceps, low forceps, and mid forceps. The ...

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