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food adulterant

A substance that makes food impure or inferior, such as toxins, organisms, pesticide residues, radioactive fallout, any poisonous or deleterious substance, or any substance added to increase bulk or weight.

Food and Drug Administration

ABBR: FDA. An agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services responsible for the protection and promotion of public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter medications, vaccines, blood transfusions, and medical devices. SEE: Department of Health and Human Services.

food-borne disease

ABBR: FBD. Any of the illnesses caused by the ingestion of contaminated or toxic nutrients. These diseases include infectious diarrheas, e.g., those caused by Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter; helminth diseases, e.g., those caused by beef, pork, or pike tapeworms; protozoan infections, e.g., giardiasis; food poisoning, e.g., those caused by Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, mushrooms, or ciguatera; and viral illnesses, esp. hepatitis A.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: The most common symptoms of a food-borne illness are gastrointestinal, e.g., nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and/or diarrhea, often associated with fever or malaise

DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is made by identifying the disease-causing agent, usually with stool cultures.

PREVENTION: Proper selection, collection, preparation, and serving of food can reduce the risk of food-borne disease, esp. if combined with regular inspections of food-service facilities and periodic reeducation of food-service workers (esp. with respect to handwashing and other hygienic practices).

TREATMENT: Many food-borne illnesses are self-limiting. For these conditions, and for food-borne gastroenteritis, treatment is supportive rather than specific. Some bacterial and most parasitic illnesses require treatment with targeted antibiotic therapies.

PATIENT CARE: Oral hydration is essential to prevent dehydration and acute kidney failure. Antidiarrheals and mild analgesic or antipyretic drugs may be used when appropriate for the patient's comfort.

DISEASE TRENDS: An increase in food-borne illnesses has been seen in recent decades, probably as a result of increases in foreign trade and travel and the increased consumption of raw foods.

food efficiency

The relative ability of a food source to contribute to weight gain, weight maintenance, or growth and development.

food frequency questionnaire

ABBR: FFQ. A tool used in clinical and research nutrition designed to identify the types and quantities of nutrients contained in the foods ingested by a subject.

Food Guide Pyramid

Recommendations developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for planning a balanced diet, subsequently replaced by MyPlate. Foods are divided into six groups: bread, cereal, rice, and pasta; fruits; vegetables; milk, yogurt, and cheese; meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and ...

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