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(dis″ĕ-rith″rō-poy-ē′ sĭs) [dys- + erythropoiesis] Any congenital or acquired defect in the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. dyserythropoietic (dis′ĕ-rith″rō-poy-et′ik), adj.


(dis″es-thē′zh(ē-) a) [dys- + esthesia] An abnormal and unpleasant sensation, e.g., as of burning, cutting, numbness, prickling, stinging, or tingling of the skin. SEE: paresthesia.

dysexecutive syndrome

(dis″eg-zek′yŭ-tiv) [dys- + L. executivus, carried out] The consequences of diseases of the frontal lobe of the brain, in which people have cognitive difficulties, e.g., paying attention, organizing time and tasks, making plans, and solving problems, as well as psychological and emotional problems.


(dĭs-fĕr′lĭn) A skeletal muscle cell membrane protein. Deficiency or absence of this protein results in several forms of muscular dystrophy.


(dĭs″fī-brĭn″ō-gĕ-nē′ mē-ă) [Gr. dys, bad, + L. fibra, fiber, + Gr. gennan, to produce, + Gr. haima, blood] Any anomaly in the molecular architecture of fibrinogen. It may cause abnormal bleeding, abnormal blood clotting, or both.


(dis-floo′ĕn-sē) Hesitant or halting verbal or written language use. Examples of dysfluency include cluttering and stuttering. Dysfluency is normal during the early phases of language acquisition, e.g., in childhood.


(dis-fŭngk′shŏn) [dys- + function] Abnormal, inadequate, or impaired action of an organ or part.

asymptomatic left ventricular d. ABBR: ALVD. A reduction in the ability pof the heart to push blood into the aorta without overt symptoms of heart failure. ALVD is demonstrated by an ejection fraction of less than 40%. It is usually caused by cardiac muscle damage, e.g., after myocardial infarction or cardiotoxic chemotherapies. About 10% of people with ALVD develop heart failure each year.

constitutional hepatic d. Gilbert syndrome.

coronary microvascular d. Coronary microvascular disease.

erectile d. ABBR: ED. The inability to achieve or sustain a penile erection for sexual intercourse. SYN: impotence. SEE: table.

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Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction

Age >60

Depression (or treatment with antidepressant medications)

Diabetes mellitus

Heart disease

Hypertension (or treatment with some antihypertensive medications)

Obesity or increased body mass index

Prostate cancer or its treatment

Sedentary lifestyle


Tobacco use

 INCIDENCE: It is a common disorder that chronically affects about a third of all men over the age of 50 but is not an inevitable part of aging.

 CAUSES: The many causes of (and diseases associated with) erectile dysfunction include diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases of the pelvis, spinal cord injuries, autonomic nervous system disorders, testosterone deficiencies, pelvic injuries resulting from surgery, pelvic radiation, ...

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