(kŏn-dĕn′sĭn) [L. con, with, + densare, to make thick, + in, into] A protein complex that compacts and organizes dividing chromosomes during mitosis.
(kŏn′dĭ-mĕnt) [L. condire, to pickle] An appetizing ingredient added to food.
CLASSIFICATION: Aromatic: vanilla, cinnamon, cloves, chervil, parsley, bay leaf. Acrid or peppery: pepper, ginger, tabasco, all-spice. Alliaceous or allylic: onion, mustard, horseradish. Acid: vinegar, capers, gherkins, citron. Animal origin: caviar, anchovies. Miscellaneous: salt, sugar, truffles.
In general, with the exception of sugar, condiments have little nutritional value. They are appetizers, stimulating the secretion of saliva and intestinal juices.
1. A state of health; physical, esp. athletic, fitness. 2. To train a person or animal to respond in a predictable way to a stimulus.
conditioned place preference
ABBR: CPP. A learned behavior in which environmental cues associated with strong incentives or rewards lead people (or animals) to return to that environment repeatedly. CPP is one model used to explain the tendency of addicts to return to specific places when they want to become intoxicated.
(kŏn-dish′ŏn-ing) 1. Improving the physical capability of a person by an exercise program. 2. In psychology, the use of a special and different stimulus in conjunction with a familiar one. After a sufficient period in which the two stimuli have been presented simultaneously, the special stimulus alone will cause the response that could originally be produced only by the familiar stimulus. Ivan Pavlov used dogs to demonstrate that the strange stimulus, ringing of a bell, could cause the animal to salivate if the test was done after a period of conditioning during which the bell and the familiar stimulus, food, were presented simultaneously. Also called classical conditioning. 3. The administration of chemotherapy in preparation for bone marrow transplantation. The purpose is to eliminate cancer cells from the marrow before donor cells are infused. 4. The treatment with heat and moisture of gases supplied to a patient through an endotracheal tube so that the gases more closely approximate those that might pass through the upper airways into the trachea and bronchi during spontaneous breathing.
aversive c. SEE: aversion therapy.
operant c. The learning of a particular action or type of behavior followed by a reward. This technique was developed by B. F. Skinner, who trained animals to activate (by pecking, in the case of a pigeon, or pressing a bar, in the case of a rat) an apparatus that released a pellet of food. SEE: Skinner, B.F.
(kon′dŏm) [origin uncertain] A thin, flexible penile sheath made of synthetic or natural materials. Condom typically refers to a male condom. Condoms are used commonly during ...