chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
Vomiting that occurs after the administration of drugs used to treat cancer. Although its causes are complex, it appears to result from both direct irritation of the gastrointestinal tract by cytotoxic drugs, and the release of chemical mediators, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), from the gastrointestinal tract. 5-HT antagonists are among the most effective treatments. Dopaminergic effects in the central nervous system are also involved in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and drugs that antagonize these effects, such as phenothiazines and other neuroleptics, can be used to treat the syndrome. Endocannabinoid drugs, corticosteroids (such as dexamethasone), antianxiety drugs (such as lorazepam) also have selected uses. Drugs that block receptors for neurokinins (such as aprepitant) are esp. effective in treating emesis that occurs more than 24 hours after chemotherapy.
(kē-mo′trŏ-pĭzm) [chemo- + tropism] The growth or movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus, such as the movement of bacteria toward nutrients. SEE: tropism.
treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs.
The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center, which provides a 24-hr hotline with product information and emergency advice to rescue personnel at the scene of a hazardous materials incident.
(chĕr′ū-bĭzm) A swollen appearance of the face of a child due to infiltration of the jaw, esp. the mandible, with masses of vascular fibrous tissue containing giant cells.
Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System.
(chĕst) [AS. cest, a box] The thorax, including all the organs, e.g., heart, great vessels, esophagus, trachea, lungs, and tissues (bone, muscle, fat) that lie between the base of the neck and the diaphragm.
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: Inspection: The practitioner inspects the chest to determine the respiratory rate and whether the right and left sides of the chest move symmetrically during breathing. In pneumonia, pleurisy, or rib fracture, for example, the affected side of the chest may have reduced movement as a result of lung consolidation or pain ("splinting" of the chest). Increased movements may be seen in extensive trauma ("flail" chest). The patient in respiratory distress uses accessory muscles of the chest to breathe; retractions of the spaces between the ribs are also seen when patients labor to breathe.
Percussion: The chest wall is tapped with the fingers (sometimes with a reflex hammer) to determine whether it has a normally hollow, or resonant, sound and feel. Dullness perceived during percussion may indicate a pleural effusion or underlying pneumonia. Abnormal tympany may be present in conditions such as emphysema, cavitary lung diseases, or pneumothorax.
Palpation: By pressing or squeezing the soft tissues of the chest, ...