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(an″ĕ-rō-kok′ŭs) [1an- + aero- + coccus] A genus of anaerobic gram-positive cocci, formerly classified as members of the genus Peptostreptococcus. They are butyrate-producing saccharolytic bacteria, sometimes pathogenic to humans.


(an′ă-jen″) [ana- + -gen] The growth stage of hair development. SEE: catagen; telogen.


[an″ă-jen′ĕ-sĭs] [ana- + genesis] Evolution in which a species evolves into another within one lineage and causes the extinction of the ancestral species.


(an″ă-kat″ă-did′ĭ-mŭs) [ana- + cata- + didymus] A congenital anomaly in which twins are separated above and below but joined at the trunk.


(ān′ăl) [L. analis] Pert. to the anus or outer rectal opening.

anal dynamic graciloplasty

The construction of a "new" anal sphincter to treat severe intractable fecal incontinence. The gracilis muscle tendon is detached at its insertion, mobilized, and reattached by wrapping it around the sphincter. Some patients can be trained to make the sphincter functional. If necessary a sustained contraction can be stimulated by implanted electrodes, closing the anus. Additional procedures have been employed as gluteal muscle mobilization. An implantable artificial sphincter has been employed. The functional result of all of these procedures is variable.


(an″ă-lep′tik) [Gr. analeptikos, restorative] 1. A drug that stimulates the central nervous system. 2. A restorative agent.

anal erotism

Anal eroticism.


(an″ăl-jē′zh(ē-)ă) [Gr. analgēsia, painlessness] 1. Absence of a normal sense of pain. 2. The relief of pain, as with medications such as anesthetic drugs. 3. The administration of a pain reliever.

audio a. SEE: audioanalgesia.

electronic dental a. ABBR: EDA. The treatment of oral pain or the administration of oral anesthesia with electrode pads applied to the cheeks or the oral mucosa. SEE: audioanalgesia.

epidural a. A technique of managing pain in which narcotics are infused into the peridural space through an indwelling catheter. Administration may be at a continuous basal infusion rate or self-administered within programmed limits.

 USES: Epidurally administered medications diffuse across the dura mater through the arachnoid and pia mater to provide pain relief and are indicated to treat pain in the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral areas (as in patients in labor or those undergoing thoracic surgeries) and to relieve the acute and chronic pain of chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, cancer pain, phantom limb pain, pancreatic pain, and incisional pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for surgeries such as cholecystectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, hysterectomy, arthroplasty, or even abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Epidural needles and ...

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