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(rē-frăk-tŏm′ĕt-ĕr) [″ + Gr. metron, measure] A device for measuring refractive power, as of the eye.


(rē″frăk-tŏm′ĕ-trē) Measurement of the refractive power of lenses.


(rē-frăk′tō-rē) [L. refractarius] 1. Obstinate; stubborn. 2. Resistant to ordinary treatment. 3. Resistant to stimulation; used of muscle or nerve.

refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia

ABBR: RCMD. In the World Health Organization classification of myelodysplastic syndromes, a disorder in which two or more blood cell lines form aberrantly. For example, the peripheral blood shows evidence of anemia and leukopenia, or of anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia; and the bone marrow shows abnormal precursors in two or more mature blood cell precursors.


(rē-frăk′chūr) [L. refractus, broken off] Rebreaking of a fracture united in a malaligned position.


(rē-frăn′jĭ-bl) [L. re, again, + ME. frangible, breakable] Capable of being refracted.


(rĭ-frĕsh′) [O.Fr. refreschir, to renew] 1. To restore strength; to relieve from fatigue; to renew; to revive. 2. To scrape epithelial covering from two opposing surfaces of a wound to facilitate healing and joining together.


(rĕ-frij′ĕr-ănt) [L. refrigerans, making cold] 1. Cooling. 2. An agent that produces coolness or reduces fever. SYN: algefacient.


(rĭ-frĭj″ĕr-ā′shŭn) [L. refrigeratio, make cold] Cooling; reduction of heat.


(rē-frĭn′jĕnt) Refractive.

Refsum disease

(ref′sŭm) [Sigvald Bernhard Refsum, Norwegian physician, 1907–1991] An autosomal recessive disease caused by the inability to metabolize phytanic acid, which accumulates in tissues and cells.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Symptoms include visual disturbances, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, and diseases of the liver, kidney, and heart.

TREATMENT: Diets low in animal fat and milk products may relieve some of the symptoms. SYN: heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis; phytanic acid storage disease; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase deficiency.


A shelter; a safe place for persons fleeing danger or distress.


A person fleeing danger or distress, esp. in times of war or persecution. Crowding, lack of health-related infrastructure, and poor nutrition contribute to the spread of many illnesses among refugees.

refusal of therapy

1. Denial of treatment to a patient. 2. Unwillingness of a patient to participate in treatment.

refusal to treat

A deliberate, conscious decision to withhold health care services from a patient.


(re′fūs″) [Fr. refus, ...

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