(pwa-zŭy′) [Jean Marie Poiseuille, Fr. physiologist, 1799–1869] A law that states that the rapidity of the capillary current is directly proportional to the fourth power of the radius of the capillary tube, the pressure on the fluid, and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the liquid and the length of the tube.
(pŏy-zĭn-dĕks) A computerized database, revised quarterly, on over 300,000 commercial compounds. For information, contact Micromedex, Inc., 600 Grant St., Denver, CO 80203; (800) 525-9083.
(poyz′ŏn) [Fr. poison fr. L. potio, a poisonous draft] Any substance taken into the body by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption that interferes with normal physiology. Virtually any substance can be poisonous if consumed in sufficient quantity; therefore poison more often implies an excessive degree of dosage rather than a specific group of substances. Aspirin is not usually thought of as a poison, but overdoses of this drug kill more children accidentally each year than any of the traditional poisons. SEE: poisoning.
cellular p. Anything that damages or kills cells.
pesticidal p. Chemicals whose toxic properties are commercially exploited in agriculture, industry, or commerce to increase quantity, improve quality, or generally promote consumer acceptability of a variety of products. Common types include insecticides, rodenticides, herbicides, defoliants, fungicides, insect repellents, molluscicides, and some kinds of food additives. The wide variety of poisons commonly found in and around the home constitutes an important source of accidental poisonings.
(poy′zŏn-ing) 1. Illness caused by a toxic substance introduced into the body. 2. Administration of a noxious substance. SEE: intoxication.
PATIENT CARE: Poisoning should be suspected in many clinical circumstances but esp. when a patient has otherwise unexplained alterations in consciousness. The standard care of the poisoned patient begins with immediate stabilization of the patient's airway, breathing, circulation, and neurological status if these are compromised. This may require oximetry, blood gas analysis, electrocardiographic monitoring, airway placement, endotracheal intubation, fluid resuscitation, administration of naloxone and dextrose, or the use of pressors for some severely intoxicated patients. If the poison can be identified, reference texts or local poison control centers should be contacted to determine specific antidotes or treatments. When the poison is unidentified or when rescuers are uncertain about its cause, it is safest to test blood and urine for acetaminophen, aspirin, and commonly abused drugs. Blood testing should also include assessments of electrolytes, kidney function, liver function, and a complete blood count. Women of childbearing age should also be routinely screened for pregnancy.
Decontamination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract includes activated charcoal if the patient has ingested a drug or chemical to which the charcoal can bind; or whole bowel irrigation, which sweeps toxins from the bowel before they are absorbed. Inducing vomiting, formerly relied ...