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(per″ĭ-kard′ē-ŭm) [peri- + ′-cardium] The membranous fibroserous sac enclosing the heart and the bases of the great vessels. It has three layers: the fibrous pericardium (the outer layer); the parietal pericardium, a serous membrane that lines the fibrous pericardium; and the visceral pericardium (epicardium), a serous membrane on the surface of the myocardium. The space between the two serous layers is the pericardial cavity, a potential space filled with serous fluid that reduces friction as the heart beats. Its base is attached to the diaphragm, its apex extending upward as far as the first subdivision of the great blood vessels. It is attached in front to the sternum, laterally to the mediastinal pleura, and posteriorly to the esophagus, trachea, and principal bronchi.

adherent p. A condition in which fibrous bands form between the two serous layers of the pericardium, obliterating the pericardial cavity. SEE: constrictive pericarditis.

bread-and-butter p. A pathological appearance seen in fibrinous pericarditis, in which the pericardium has a peculiar appearance as a result of fibrinous deposits on the two opposing surfaces.

fibrous p. The outer fibrous layer of the pericardium, extending over the bases of the great vessels and the upper surface of the diaphragm.

parietal p. The middle layer of the pericardial sac, a serous membrane lining the fibrous pericardium.

visceral p. Epicardium.


(per″i-sē′kăl) [peri- + cecal (2)] Surrounding the cecum.


(pĕr″ĭ-sĕl′ ū-lăr) [″ + L. cellula, cell] Around a cell.


(pĕr″ĭ-kō-lăn-jī′tĭs) [Gr. peri, around, + chole, bile, + angeion, vessel, + itis, inflammation] Inflammation of tissues surrounding a bile duct. SYN: periangiocholitis.

perichondral, perichondrial

(per-i-kon′drăl, per-i-kon′drē-ăl) [peri- + Gr. chondros, cartilage] Pert. to perichondrium (the membrane that covers cartilage).


(per-ē-kon-drīt′ĭs) [perichondrium + -itis] Inflammation of the perichondrium.


(per-i-kon′drē-ŭm) [peri- + Gr. chondros, cartilage + -ium (2)] Fibrous connective tissue that surrounds cartilage.


(per″i-kō′lĭk) [peri- + colic (2)] Surrounding the colon.


(per″ĭ-kor″ŏ-nīt′ĭs) [peri- + corona (of a tooth) + -itis] An abscess around the crown of an unerupted molar. SYN: pericoronal abscess.


(pĕr″ĭ-krā′nē-ăl) [″ + kranion, skull] Pert. to the periosteum of the skull.


(per″i-krā′nē-ŭm, per″i-krā′nē-ă)pl. pericrania [peri- + cranium] The fibrous membrane surrounding the cranium; ...

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