In malpractice law, the responsibility an employer bears for the negligent actions of professional employees or contractors; among other duties, the employer is assumed to have diligently researched its agents, credentials, licensure, and suitability to provide care. SYN: ostensible authority.
(ŏs-tĕn′sĭ-bĭl) Ostensible agency.
[Gr. osteon, bone] Prefixes meaning bone.
(ŏs″tē-ō-ăn″ĕs-thē′zē-ă) [″ + an-, not, + aisthesis, sensation] The condition of the bone being insensitive, esp. to stimuli that would normally produce pain.
(ŏs″tē-ō-ăr-thrī′tĭs) [osteo- + arthritis] ABBR: OA. Arthritis marked by progressive deterioration of cartilage in synovial joints and vertebrae. The dominant side of the body is involved somewhat more often than the nondominant side. Affected joints become enlarged, lose range of motion, make sounds, or feel noisy or creaky. SYN: degenerative joint disease. SEE: illus.
OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE
It is especially prominent in the area above the fibula
INCIDENCE: Incidence increases with age. Rates appear to be lower in northern climates. In patients younger than 55, men and women are affected equally, but in patients older than 55, the condition is more common in women, except in the hips, where it is more common in men.
RISK FACTORS: Risk factors include aging, obesity, overuse or abuse of joints (repetitive motions, bending, lifting), as in sports or strenuous occupations, instability of joints, excessive mobility, immobilization, and trauma.
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Signs and symptoms include pain and inflammation in one or more joints, typically in the hands, knees, hips, and spine. Intolerance of activity, morning stiffness, impaired gait, decreased joint mobility, and stiffness during rest (gelling) are also symptomatic.
DIAGNOSIS: Diagnostic testing includes evaluation of joints and symptoms, including assessment of the location and pattern of pain; tests to rule out other diseases, including x-rays, joint fluid analysis; and blood tests.
TREATMENT: Goals are to decrease stress on involved joints, maintain function, and reduce pain. Analgesia is used to relieve pain; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used frequently in OA to relieve pain and swelling. Other drugs include corticosteroids, sodium hyaluronate, acetaminophen, muscle relaxants, and calcium supplements if needed. Hot and cold physical therapies are used to reduce pain, improve range of motion, and maintain patient's ability to function. Surgical methods may be implemented when disease is advanced.
PATIENT CARE: Treatment is supportive, including exercise balanced with rest and locally applied heat. Weight reduction, if needed, can ease joint pain and improve mobility; a body mass index below 24.9 is desirable. Aerobic ...