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Part III. Lower-Extremity Testing: Introduction


On completion of Part III, you will be able to:

  1. Identify:

    • appropriate planes and axes for each lower-extremity joint motion

    • normal ranges of motion for each lower-extremity joint

    • structures that limit the end of the range of motion (ROM)

    • expected normal end-feels

  2. Describe:

    • testing positions used for each lower-extremity joint motion and muscle length test

    • goniometer alignment for each motion and muscle length test

    • capsular pattern of restricted motion

    • range of motion necessary for selected functional activities at each major lower-extremity joint

  3. Explain:

    • how age, gender, and other variables may affect the ROM

    • how sources of error in measurement may affect testing results

  4. Perform a goniometric measurement of joint ROM and muscle length testing for the hip, knee, ankle, and foot that includes:

    • a clear explanation of the testing procedure

    • proper positioning of the individual in testing position

    • adequate stabilization

    • use of appropriate testing motion

    • correct determination of the end of the motion

    • correct identification of the end-feel

    • palpation of the appropriate bony landmarks

    • accurate alignment of the goniometer and correct reading and recording of goniometric measurements

  5. Plan goniometric measurements of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot that are organized by body position.

  6. Assess the intratester and intertester reliability of the reader's goniometric measurements of the lower-extremity joints using the statistical methods described in Chapter 3.

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