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Activity:  An ICF term that describes actions such as walking, climbing stairs, or getting out of bed.

AGREE II:  A published, open access tool for the appraisal of clinical practice guidelines; the product of the AGREE Collaboration (, an international collaboration of researchers and policy makers.

Alpha Level:  The agreed-on value for the probability of chance in explaining the results of a study; it is typically 5% (0.05).

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA):  A parametric statistic used to compare means and to remove the contribution of a factor that is present during treatment that was not controlled in the experimental design.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA):  A parametric statistic used to compare results for more than two groups.

Applicability:  The relevance of a sample or study to your patient or patient group.

Appraise:  To critically evaluate a research study.

Autocorrelation:  Positive correlation among data points from the same subject.

Background Questions:  Questions that supply general information and are not specific to an individual patient.

Basic Science Research:  Often involves non-human research and is fundamental to evidence based physical therapy; typically tests theory.

Beta Weight:  A standardized value that gives a weight (amount of contribution) to each of the independent variables in a regression equation.

Bias:  Attitudes or design features that shape the results of a study.

Blinding:  Restricting knowledge of the purpose of a research study, participant group, or other factors that would influence the conducting of or results from a research study (masking).

Body Functions and Structures:  An ICF term that describes variables at the level of bodily functions and specific structures.

Bonferroni Correction:  A planned statistical test used to correct for conducting multiple statistical tests and the possibility of a type I error.

C Statistic:  A statistic to determine the probability of chance; used with small data sets or data with serial dependency.

Case Control Studies:  Studies conducted after an outcome of interest has occurred. The factors that contributed to the outcome are studied in a group that has the outcome (case group) and compared to a group that does not have the outcome of interest but is similar to the case group in other factors (control group).

Case Studies:  A written case description completed retrospectively and detailing the characteristics of one case and the course of intervention for that case; not a controlled single case experimental study.

Ceiling Effects:  Reflect a lack of sufficient range in a measure to fully characterize a group of patients.

Celeration Line:  A "best fit" line through the data beginning in the ...

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