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Interactions Between Drugs and Commonly Used Modalities

TABLE 18.1Interactions Between Drugs and Commonly Used Physical Modalities

Thermal Agents

Thermal agents are modalities that produce a therapeutic transfer of energy to a patient to increase or decrease tissue temperature. Cryotherapy is the term used to describe the use of agents that lower tissue temperature, whereas thermotherapy is the term used for agents that raise tissue temperature. Temperature changes may be superficial or deep depending on the specific modality used, the body part treated, and the ability of the body to provide thermoregulation.

Note: Ultrasound and hydrotherapy may also be classified as thermal agents; however, because they utilize mechanical forms of energy to produce thermal as well as other therapeutic effects, they are listed as mechanical agents in this section.

Physical Laws

Thermal agents transfer heat by the following five modes of heat transfer:

conduction: Heating or cooling that ...

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