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Upper Respiratory Tract


Trachea and Bronchial Tree


Anterior View of Lungs and Thorax


Posterior View of Lungs and Thorax


Normal posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph.

Anatomy of the Bronchopulmonary Tree



Terms Associated With the Examination of the Pulmonary System

barrel chest: An increased anterior-posterior diameter of the thorax, barrel chest is sometimes associated with pulmonary emphysema.

cyanosis: A bluish tinge to the skin, cyanosis is caused by low oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.

digital clubbing: An abnormal finding, digital clubbing is flattening of the normal angle between the base of the nail and its cuticle as well as enlargement of the terminal phalanx.

flail chest: When ribs are broken in two or more places, this segment of the chest wall moves paradoxically during ventilation.

fremitus: Palpable vibrations felt through the chest wall (see tactile fremitus and vocal fremitus).

palpation: The chest is palpated for areas of tenderness, symmetry, amount, and synchrony of thoracic excursion during ventilation, integrity of the rib cage, and position of the mediastinum and vibrations.

pectus carinatum: The sternum protrudes forward and is abnormally prominent; also called pigeon or chicken breast.

pectus excavatum: The sternum is abnormally depressed; it is also called funnel chest.

percussion: See separate listing on Abnormal Breath Sounds below.

tactile fremitus: Palpable vibrations are felt during ventilation. (See fremitus and vocal fremitus.)

vocal fremitus: Palpable felt vibrations when the patient is speaking. (See fremitus and tactile fremitus.)

TABLE 6.1Terms Used to Describe Breathing

Respiratory Rate


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