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This fourth edition is enhanced by new MRI and CT images that were provided by Michael Mulligan, MD, an excellent radiologist and teacher. I am forever grateful that he has been willing to share his knowledge and time for the advancement of this textbook throughout the past three editions. His meticulous approach as a reviewer ensured the content was accurate and current. Above all, his enthusiastic collaboration on a textbook for physical therapy students speaks volumes about the professional philosophy of this physician. He values all clinicians who participate in the care of the patient. By generously sharing his expertise, we gain the opportunity to advance our knowledge base, broaden our understanding of the patient's condition, and communicate more effectively with other professionals. We hope we will continue to extend the favor he has done for us by improving our care of the patient and by reaching out to mentor those who follow us in our profession.

Thank you also to another radiologist and teacher, Alex Freitas, MD, who has helped to demystify MRI for students via his website that condenses musculoskeletal MRI protocols to their basics. He kindly offered the use of his images, answered many e-mail questions, and also gave his time to serve as a content reviewer.

Grateful appreciation is extended to my indefatigable colleague Hilmir Agustsson, PT, PhD, MTC, CFC, for sharing his ideas, enthusiasm, and labor of love for teaching imaging. His four chapters tackle the most difficult material with clarity and grace. His contributions in this text and in his own university courses have brought advanced imaging principles to the next generation of students with authority. And this authority can only come from a true love of anatomy, of technology, and of the infinite complexity of patient problems. He approaches his work with seriousness, joy, perseverance, and patience. It has simply been an enchanting privilege to work with this gentleman.

The exceptional Ellen J. Pong, DPT, MOTR/L, always produced more than expected and became invaluable for her research, Focus On papers, Glossary compilations, as well as her enduring friendship and moral support. I met Ellie when she was a grad student in my first seminar at the University of St. Augustine. Since then she has become clinician, teacher, author, researcher, and mother extraordinaire. This is no surprise. She was truly a gift as a student and now as a colleague and friend.

Many thanks to J. B. Barr, PT, DPT, OCS, for his closing chapter on the integration of imaging in daily practice, and to his students in Creighton University's DPT program, 2000–2004, whose coursework generated the case studies throughout the text. Also, thanks to a new Chatham University graduate, Stephanie Fitzsimmons, DPT, for assisting in literature searches.

Lastly, the fourth edition is modernized with new patient positioning photographs, made under the tutelage of my coworker, Libby Carlini, RT. Never underestimate the value of a good radiology technician. They are the workhorses of radiology, dealing with the injured patients, the heavy equipment, the endless data entry, the stat orders. Despite this, Libby made time to answers my questions and stepped up to run the photo shoot. Her attention to detail and precise positioning ensured each photo example was technically accurate.

The fourth edition stands on the shoulders of each earlier edition. I am indebted to the kindness of many exceptional professionals who helped build each edition, brick by brick— or image by image! The third edition expanded due to the generosity of Nick Oldnall at; John C. Hunter, MD, at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine; Laughlin Dawes, MD, of Perth, Australia, and his images at; and Morten Weibye at by GE Healthcare. The second edition was enhanced by the advanced images of Drs. Cliff Spohr, A. Graham-Smith, John Lin, and the craniocervical images of Professor Mariano Rocobado, DPT. Corlia van Rooyen, MPT, RHT, lent her expertise as a hand therapist and truly advanced the chapter on the hand and wrist. Finally, the very first edition was made possible due to the generosity of the following radiologists and hospital radiology staffs: Arthur Nussbaum, MD, and Peter Fedyshin, MD, at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Passavant; Jeffrey Towers, MD, at UPMC Montefiore; Lance Cohen, MD, formerly of Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh; Margie Brindl, retired Administrator of Undergraduate Medical Education in Radiology at the University of Pittsburgh; Linda Barto, RTR, formerly of Butler Memorial Hospital, Butler, PA; Sarah Hample, RTR, private practice; and to my first boss and lasting mentor, Charles W. Etter, PT, who teaches by example what it is to be your best.

Thank you to the dedicated staff at F. A. Davis, and especially to Margaret Biblis, Editor-in Chief, Jennifer Pine, Senior Developmental Editor, and Melissa Duffield, Senior Acquisitions Editor, for their devotion, expertise, diplomacy, and sense of humor during the long journey of four editions. They were the best of traveling companions.

Heartfelt thanks to my family. To my parents, Francis and Berniece Nowicki, for a lifetime of love and support in all endeavors and for pointing me toward physical therapy in the beginning. And to Jesse and Ann, for their happy spirits, love, patience, and unflagging belief that Mom's book is pretty neat. Jesse's beautiful pencil drawings have been carried forward to this edition's chapter title pages. These drawings depict people engaged in everyday activities and exude a warmth that reminds us imaging begins and ends with the patient. Ann was the model of good cheer as she put up with being the poked and prodded positioning model in a long photo shoot. And many thanks to her uncle, the photographer, Mark Konezny, for his sense of perfection through the lens.

And thanks to my best friend and husband, David Lindsey McKinnis, MEd, PT, who taught me how to teach, how to write, and how to achieve. His most tangible contribution to the book was drawing the original line art. These drawings simplified difficult material and greatly enhanced the practical use of the text. His most intangible contribution was in giving me the belief in myself that I could write it.

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