et al: A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 352:1138, 2005.
JM, and Foege,
WH: Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 270:2207, 1993.
et al: Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291(10):1238, 2004.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. Retrieved September 6, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/BRFSS/
et al: The roles of healthcare professionals in implementing clinical prevention and population health. Am J Prev Med 40(2):261, 2011.
D, van der Ploeg,
HP, and Bauman,
AE: Physical activity promotion in the physical therapy setting: Perspectives from practitioners and students. Phys Ther 90(9):1311, 2010.
S: Wellness promotion beliefs and practices of pediatric physical therapists. Pediatr Phys Ther 17:148, 2005.
D: The role of fitness in physical therapy patient management: Applications across the continuum of care. Cardiopulm Phys Ther J 17(2):47, 2006.
et al: The role of health promotion in physical therapy in California, New York, and Tennessee. Phys Ther 84(6):510, 2004.
American Physical Therapy Association: Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, ed 2. Phys Ther 81:1, 2001.
The Model Practice Act for Physical Therapy. A Tool for Public Protection and Legislative Change, ed 4. Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy, Alexandria, VA, 2006. Retrieved July 6, 2011, from www.fsbpt.org/download/MPA2006.pdf
Advocacy. American Physical Therapy Association, Alexandria, VA. Retrieved September 7, 2011, from www.apta.org/Advocacy/
MM, and Wolf,
SL: The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting: Observations and opportunities. Phys Ther 90(11):1555, 2010.
S: Ask an expert. Today in PT 2:20, 2009.
MP: Definition of health promotion 2.0: Embracing passion, enhancing motivation, recognizing dynamic balance, and creating opportunities. Am J Health Promot 24(1):iv, 2009.
HL: High-level wellness for man and society. Am J Public Health 49(6):786, 1959.
J, and Steinhardt,
M: The conceptualization and measurement of perceived wellness: Integrating balance across and within dimensions. Am J Health Promot 11(3):208, 1997.
CB, and Pangrazi,
RP: Toward a uniform definition of wellness: A commentary. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest Series 3, no.15, December 2001.
E: Health values: Achieving high level wellness: Origin, philosophy, purpose. Health Values 12(3):5, 1988.
CL, and Mandle,
CL: Health Promotion throughout the Lifespan, ed 5. Mosby, St. Louis, 2002.
Health-Related Quality of Life. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. Retrieved March 10, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/hrqol/methods.htm
LW, and Kreuter,
MW: Health Promotion Planning, ed 3. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999.
BL, and Smeltzer,
JL: Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer, ed 4. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2005.
SS, and Arnold,
J (eds): Health Promotion in Practice. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2006.
KE, and Christenson,
GM: Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep 100(2):126, 1985.
LF, and Pinkus,
T: Education, self-care, and outcomes of rheumatic diseases: Further challenges to the "Biomedical Model" paradigm. Arthritis Rheum 10(5):283, 1997.
GL: The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. In Caplan,
JJ, and Sisti,
DA (eds): Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC, 2004, p 51.
A: The primacy of self-regulation in health promotion. Appl Psychol 54(2):245, 2005.
S: Disability concepts revisited: Implications for prevention. In Pope,
A, and Tarlov,
A (eds): Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention. Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1991, p 309.
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). World Health Organization. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/
Physical Therapists and Physical Therapist Assistants as Promoters and Advocates for Physical Activity/Exercise RC-08. American Physical Therapy Association, 64th Annual Session House of Delegates, San Antonio, TX, June 9–11, 2008.
et al: Creating an interface between the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and physical therapist practice. Phys Ther 90(7):1053, 2010.
MI, and Howell,
D: The power of empowerment: An ICF-based model to improve self-efficacy and upper extremity function of survivors of breast cancer. Rehabil Oncol 28(3):19, 2010.
et al: Using a case report of a patient with spinal cord injury to illustrate the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health during multidisciplinary patient management. Phys Ther 90(7):1039, 2010.
et al: Promotion of physical fitness and prevention of secondary conditions for children with cerebral palsy: Section on pediatrics research summit proceedings. Phys Ther 87(11):1495, 2007.
ER, and Saleeby,
P: Health promotion and education: Application of the ICF in the US and Canada using an ecological perspective. Disabil Rehabil 30(12-13):942, 2008.
et al: Obesity-related disability: Key factors identified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Disabil Rehabil 32(24):2028, 2010.
B, and Shank,
J: In praise of sport: Promoting sport participation as a mechanism of health among persons with a disability. Disabil Health J 2(3):116, 2009.
JM, and Shapiro,
E: Self-rated health: A predictor of mortality among the elderly. Am J Public Health 72(8):800, 1982.
Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from www.nihPROMIS.org
et al: SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide. Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, 1993.
SM, and McEwan,
J: Nottingham Health Profile: The development of a subjective health indicator. Sociol Health Illn 2:231, 1980.
M: The Sickness Impact Profile: Conceptual formulation and methodology for the development of a health status measure. Int J Health Serv 6:393, 1976.
CA, and Rogers,
JR: An empirical investigation of a theoretically based measure of perceived wellness. J Couns Psychol 52(1):93, 2005.
RF: The AIMS approach to health status measurement: Conceptual background and measurement properties. J Rheumatol 9:785,1982.
et al: AIMS2: The content and properties of a revised and expanded Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales health status questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 35:1, 1992.
L, and Ware,
JEJ: The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ): A user's manual. Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, 1996.
et al: CFQ Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire: A health-related quality of life measure. User manual. English version 1.0. 2000.
et al: A stroke-adapted 30-item version of the Sickness Impact Profile to assess quality of life (SA-SIP30). Stroke 28:2155, 1997.
et al: The Stroke Impact Scale Version 2.0 Evaluation of reliability, validity and sensitivity to change. Stroke 30:2131, 1999.
JM, and Brach,
JS: The Facial Disability Index: Reliability and validity of a disability assessment instrument for disorders of the facial neuromuscular system. Phys Ther 76(12):1288, 1996.
et al: A measure of quality of life for clinical trials in chronic lung disease. Thorax 42:773, 1987.
MJ, and Rafferty,
AP: Healthy lifestyle characteristics among adults in the United States. Arch Intern Med 165:854, 2005.
American College of Sports Medicine: ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, ed 8. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2009.
et al: The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Arch Intern Med 164:249, 2004.
et al: International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1381, 2003.
S, and Kaplan-Liss,
E: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2008.
et al: Common Measures, Better Outcomes (COMBO). A field test of brief health behavior measures in primary care. Am J Prev Med 35 (5S):S414, 2008.
Healthy Living. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved September 6, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/HealthyLiving/
The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2010–2011. Recommendations of the US Preventive Services Task Force. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, 2010.
Electronic Preventive Services Selector. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD. Retrieved September 6, 2011, from http://epss.ahrq.gov/ePSS/index.jsp
et al: Behavioral counseling to promote physical activity and a healthful diet to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults: A systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 153:736, 2010.
et al: Primary care–relevant interventions to prevent falling in older adults: A systematic evidence review for the US Preventative Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 153(12):815, 2010.
et al: Smoking cessation and counseling: Knowledge and views of Canadian physical therapists. Phys Ther 91(7):1051, 2011.
BK, and Lewis,
FM (eds): Health Behavior and Health Education, ed 3. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2002.
IM: Historical origins of the Health Belief Model. Health Educ Monogr 2:328–335, 1974.
et al: Relationship between diet, exercise habits, and health status among patients with diabetes. Res Social Adm Pharm 7(2):151, 2011.
et al: Patient education to prevent falls among older hospital inpatients: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 171(6):516, 2011.
et al: Health beliefs toward cardiovascular risk reduction in patients admitted to chest pain observation units. Acad Emerg Med 16(5):379, 2009.
M (ed): Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. Wiley, New York, 1967.
I: The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50:179, 1991.
G, and Kik,
G: The theory of planned behavior: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. Am J Health Promot 11(2):87, 1996.
CJ, and Conner,
M: Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior. Br J Soc Psychol 40(4):471, 2001.
P, and Conner,
M: The theory of planned behavior and exercise: Evidence for the mediating and moderating roles of planning on intention-behavior relationships. J Sport Exerc Psychol 27(4):488, 2005.
JO: Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis. Brooks-Cole, Pacific Grove, CA, 1979.
M, and McCubbin,
JA: Factors influencing the exercise behavior of adults with physical disabilities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):868, 2004.
A: Social learning through imitation. In Jones,
MR (ed): Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1962, p 211.
A: Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50:248, 1991.
A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. WH Freeman, New York, 1997.
et al: Effects of the coach approach intervention on adherence to exercise in obese women: Assessing mediation of social cognitive theory factors. Res Q Exerc Sport 82(1):99, 2011.
AG, and Brawley,
LR: Moms in motion: A group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3:23, 2006.
ML: Use of social cognitive theory–based physical activity intervention on health-promoting behaviors of university students. Percept Mot Skills 107:833, 2008.
KL, and Sharpe,
BL: Promoting physical activity in independent living communities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38(1):112, 2006.
et al: Internet intervention for increasing physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 17(1):116, 2011.
et al: A randomized trial to increase physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41(4):935, 2009.
et al: A preliminary test of a student-centered intervention on increasing physical activity in underserved adolescents. Ann Behav Med 30(2):119, 2005.
van der Ploeg,
et al: Physical activity for people with a disability: A conceptual model. Sports Med 34(10):639, 2004.
M, and Kuhlman,
P: Self-efficacy: The third factor besides attitude and subjective norm as a predictor of behavioral intentions. Health Educ Res 3:273, 1988.
WR, and Rollnick,
S: Motivational Interviewing ed 2. Guilford Press, New York, 2002.
et al: Motivational enhancement therapy in addition to physical therapy improves motivational factors and treatment outcomes in people with low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92(2):176, 2011.
S: Motivational interviewing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract 55(513):305, 2005.
et al: Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract 58(553):535, 2008.
et al: Motivational interviewing to increase physical activity in long-term cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Nurs Res 56(1):18, 2007.
DA, and Inoue,
A. Motivational interviewing to promote physical activity for people with chronic heart failure. J Adv Nurs 50(5):518, 2005.
V, and Olivarius,
NF: Fitness consultations in routine care of patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice: An 18-month non-randomised intervention study. BMC Fam Pract 11:83, 2010.
et al: Tailored print communication and telephone motivational interviewing are equally successful in improving multiple lifestyle behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Ann Behav Med 41(1):104, 2011.
et al: Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006936. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006936.pub2.
et al: A randomised controlled trial of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Br J Gen Pract 56(531):768, 2006.
S: The role of the physical therapist in the recognition, assessment, and exercise intervention in persons with, or at risk for, osteoporosis. Top Geriatr Rehabil 21(1):42, 2005.
L, and Lange,
M: Predicting falls in individuals with Parkinson disease: A reconsideration of clinical balance measures. J Neurol Phys Ther 30(2):60, 2006.
C: How multiple interventions reduced injuries and costs in one plant. Work 26(3):251, 2006.
J: A randomized controlled trial to prevent noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female collegiate soccer players. Am J Sports Med 36(8):1476, 2008.
SE, and Andresen,
EM: Correlates of physical activity for adults with disability. Prev Chronic Dis 3(3):1, 2006.
CF, and Pencharz,
PB: Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia. Obes Res 11:563, 2003.
et al: Physical activity levels among the general US adult population and in adults with and without arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 49(1):129, 2003.
et al: Physical activity in US older adults with diabetes mellitus: Prevalence and correlates of meeting physical activity recommendations. J Am Geriatr Soc 59(1):132, 2011.
et al: State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004. Prev Chronic Dis 4(4):A86, 2007.
JL, and Yamaki,
K: Obesity and secondary conditions in adolescents with disabilities: Addressing the needs of an underserved population. J Adolesc Health 41(3):224, 2007.
JH, and Wang,
E: Obesity prevalence among a group of Chicago residents with disabilities. Arch Phys Med Rehab 86(7):1461, 2005.
K: Linking health promotion with physiotherapy for low back pain: A review. J Rehabil Med 40:401, 2008.
American Physical Therapy Association: Physical therapists and physical therapist assistants as promoters and advocates for physical activity/exercise. House of Delegates P06-08-07-08.
L, and Carlberg,
EB: Factors that affect exercise participation among people with physical disabilities. Adv Physiother 13(1):18, 2011.
SA, and Halldorsdottir,
S: Facilitators and barriers to exercising among people with osteoarthritis: A phenomenological study. Phys Ther 90(7):1014, 2010.
et al: Physical activity participation among persons with disabilities: Barriers and facilitators. Am J Prev Med 26(5):419, 2004.
et al: Exploring social cognitive theory constructs for promoting exercise among breast cancer patients. Cancer Nurs 27(6):462, 2004.
Physical Fitness for Special Populations. American Physical Therapy Association, Alexandria, VA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from www.apta.org/PFSP/
Physical Activity among Adults with a Disability—United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5639a2.htm
MD, and Rimmer,
JH: Effects of exercise on quality of life in stroke survivors: A meta-analysis. Stroke 42(3):832, 2011.
C, and Helgeson,
K: Exercise Prescription for Medical Conditions. FA Davis, Philadelphia, 2011.
et al: ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities, ed 3. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 2009.
The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Disability and Human Development, College of Applied Health Sciences, Chicago, IL. Retrieved September 6, 2011, from www.ncpad.org/
et al: Effectiveness of the 5-As tobacco cessation treatments in nine HMOs. J Gen Intern Med 24(2):149, 2009.
ME, and Dean,
E: Advice as a smoking cessation strategy: A systematic review and implications for physical therapists. Physiother Theory Pract 25(5-6):369, 2009.
Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_home.htm
KM: Exercise for people with osteoporosis: Translating the science into clinical practice. Curr Osteoporos Rep 4(4):129, 2006.
et al: Effects of a group-based exercise and educational program on physical performance and disease self-management in rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled study. Phys Ther 91(6):879, 2011.
et al: Effect of a multimodal high-intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 339:b3410, 2009.
et al: The revised research agenda for physical therapy. Phys Ther 91(2):165, 2011.