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abruptio placentae Premature detachment of the placenta from the uterus

accessory movement Movement within a joint and surrounding soft tissues that is necessary for normal range of motion but cannot be voluntarily performed

accommodating resistance exercise A term used synonymously with isokinetic exercise

active inhibition A type of stretching exercise in which there is reflex inhibition and subsequent elongation of the contractile elements of muscles

activity limitation Difficulty executing or inability to perform tasks or actions of daily life. Synonymous with functional limitation.

adaptation The ability of an organism to change over time in response to a stimulus

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A high-energy compound from which the body derives energy

adhesions Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization, following trauma, or as a complication of surgery, which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved

aerobic exercise Submaximal, rhythmic, repetitive exercise of large muscle groups, during which the needed energy is supplied by inspired oxygen

aerobic system An aerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when food is broken down

amniotic fluid Liquid contained in the amniotic sac. The fetus floats in the fluid, which serves as a cushion against injury and helps maintain a constant fetal body temperature

anaerobic exercise Exercise that occurs without the presence of inspired oxygen

anaerobic glycolytic system (lactic acid system) Anaerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when glucose is broken down to lactic acid

arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 difference) The difference between the oxygen content of arterial and venous blood

arthritis Inflammation of the structures of a joint

arthrodesis Surgical fusion of boney surfaces of a joint with internal fixation such as pins, nails, plates, and bone grafts; usually done in cases of severe joint pain and instability in which mobility of the joint is a lesser concern

arthroplasty Any reconstructive joint procedure, with or without a joint implant, designed to relieve pain and/or restore joint motion

arthroscopy Examination of the internal structures of a joint by means of an endoscopic viewing apparatus inserted into the joint

arthrotomy Surgical incision into a joint

ATP-PC system Anaerobic energy system in which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is manufactured when phosphocreatine (PC) is broken down

atrophy Wasting or reduction of the size of cells, tissues, organs, or body parts



balance Ability to maintain the body's center of gravity over the base of support

bursitis Inflammation of a bursa



capsular pattern Pattern of limitation, characteristic for a given joint, that ...

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