Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content ++ Physiologic Changes with Aging ++ Table Graphic Jump LocationFavorite Table | Download (.pdf) | Print Musculoskeletal Neural ↓ Muscle mass (↓ type II = FT) & strength ↓ Motor unit recruitment ↓ Speed of mov't ↓ Joint flexibility ↓ Bone mass & strength Cartilage degeneration ↓ Conduction = altered pain ↓ Enzymatic activity ↓ Reflexes ↑ Postural sway ↓ Responsiveness Change in sleep patterns Cardiovascular Pulmonary ↓ Cardiac output ↑ Vascular resistance ↓ Lipid catabolism ↓ Vascular elasticity = ↑ DBP ↓ Response to postural stress ↓ Recoil within the lung Calcification of soft tissue in the chest wall ↓ PO2 from 20–70 years ↓ VO2 max ↓ Pulmonary blood flow = ↓ O2 Sat ↑ RV Integumentary GI ↓ Thickness with ↑ risk of breakdown Uneven pigmentation ↓ Vascularity = altered thermoregulation ↓ Sub-q tissue ↑ risk for Hypothermia ↓ Peristalsis ↓ Enzymatic activity ↓ Motility Urogenital/Renal Special Senses ↓ Bladder capacity ↓ Bladder elasticity Prostate hyperplasia ↓ Kidney mass ↓ Glomerular filtration rate ↓ Creatinine clearance ↓ Visual acuity ↓ Hearing ↓ Smell & taste ↓ Thymus function ↓ Ca++ control ↓ Sweating Immune Psychosocial ↓ Function/resistance ↓ T-cells ↓ Temperature regulation ↑ Incidence of depression ↑ Fatigue Cognitive deficits ++ Influence of Aging on Laboratory Values ++ Table Graphic Jump LocationFavorite Table | Download (.pdf) | Print Test Aging Influence Chemistry AST, ALT No change Alkaline phosphatase ↑ 20% males; ↑ 37% females GGTP, serum bilirubiin No change Serum albumin Slight ↓ Serum magnesium ↓ 15% from 30–80 yrs Uric acid Slight ↑ Lipids Total cholesterol 30–40mg/dL ↑ by 55 yrs in females & 60 yrs in males HDL cholesterol 30% ↑ in males; 30% in females from 30–80 yrs Triglycerides 30% ↑ in males; 50% in females from 30–80 yrs Gases pH No change PaCO2 No change PaO2 25% ↓ from 30–80 yrs Renal Creatinine clearance 10 mL/min/1.73m3/decade Serum creatinine No change Thyroid T3 Slight ↓ T4 No change Thyrotropin Slight ↓ Blood Fasting blood glucose 2 mg/dL ↑ per decade > 30 yrs ESR (sed rate) ↑ to 40 mm/hr in males & 45 mm/hr in females Hematocrit/hemoglobin No change Leukocyte count Slight ↓ RBC/platelet count No change Source: Brigden ML & Heathcote JC (2000). ++ Assessment of Falling Risk(s) ++ Table Graphic Jump LocationFavorite Table | Download (.pdf) | Print Risk Factors for Falling Yes No Have you suffered previous falls? Do you have problems with your balance or walking? Do you take > 4 of the following medications? Antipsychotics–Thorazine, Haldol Tricyclic antidepressants–Elavil, Prozac Antianxiety–Valium, Xanax Hypnotics–Seconal, Butulan, Doral Antihypertensives Do you have problems with your vision? Do you get dizzy when you change positions? Do you ever experience light-headedness? Are you afraid of falling? Do you have problems with your feet? ... GET ACCESS TO THIS RESOURCE Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Username? Forgot Password? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth Get Free Access Through Your Institution Contact your institution's library to ask if they subscribe to McGraw-Hill Medical Products. What is MyAccess? Create a FREE MyAccess profile to: Use this site remotely Bookmark your favorite content Track your self-assessment progress and more!