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LEARNING OUTCOMES

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

  1. Compare and contrast the three different types of muscle tissue in the human body.

  2. Describe the structural organization of skeletal muscle.

  3. Explain the role of the myofilaments actin and myosin in muscle contraction.

  4. Describe the structural organization and function of connective tissue.

  5. Compare and contrast the different types of skeletal muscle fibers.

  6. Explain the process of muscle contraction as described by the sliding filament theory.

  7. Describe the role of excitation-contraction coupling as it relates to muscle contraction.

  8. Explain the significance of motor unit recruitment in the development of bodily movement.

  9. Describe the determining factors of skeletal muscle growth and atrophy.

  10. Outline the organization of the different divisions of the nervous system.

  11. Identify the primary structures of the nervous system.

  12. Explain the basic processes involved in the transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body.

  13. Describe the nervous system structures related to, and the processes involved in, proprioception.

  14. Explain the basic concepts of motor coordination and movement.

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ANCILLARY LINK

Visit DavisPlus at http://davisplus.fadavis.com for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.

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VIGNETTE

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VIGNETTE

  • Angela is a physical therapist working as part of the health-care team at a hospital-based fitness facility. Her newest client is Marci, a 67-year-old retiree who is recovering from a stroke. In addition to addressing Marci's cardiac limitations and balance issues, Angela is working with Marci's doctors to develop a plan to manage the spasticity she is experiencing in her left hand, which leaves her with constantly contracted arm musculature, resulting in a permanently clenched fist and bent elbow.

    What are some strength-training considerations that Angela must keep in mind when working with Marci? What can she do to help address the spasticity in Marci's left hand?

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INTRODUCTION

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The body's ability to create muscular force that results in either joint movement (mobility) or joint stiffness (stability) is dependent on the interaction of the skeletal muscles and the nervous system. Muscles rely on messages from nerves to carry out their many important functions. This chapter provides information on the fundamental properties of muscle and nerve tissue, and how these structures interact to function as the body's means of support and movement.

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Sometimes called the neuromuscular system, the combined structures of the muscular and nervous systems are responsible for the coordinated, efficient movement of the body as it accepts and reacts to the forces present in daily activities. The neuromuscular system is the connection of the muscles to the brain and spinal cord through a network of nerve circuits that direct the ebb and flow of muscular energy.

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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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The muscular system, which is composed of more than 600 individual skeletal muscles, is responsible for movement of various body parts. Although we discuss ...

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