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LEARNING OUTCOMES

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

  1. Outline the major anatomical structures of the respiratory system.

  2. Explain the functional differences between respiration and ventilation.

  3. Define minute and alveolar ventilation, and explain how to calculate these values.

  4. Compare and contrast the functional components of the conducting and respiratory zones in the lungs.

  5. Identify the respiratory control center in the brain.

  6. Describe the major factors in the control of respiration.

  7. Describe the factors that affect gas diffusion.

  8. Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged at the lung and tissues.

  9. Calculate the partial pressure of gases in the atmospheric air and alveoli.

  10. Describe how gases are transported in the blood.

  11. Explain the factors that affect hemoglobin-oxygen saturation during exercise.

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ANCILLARY LINK

Visit DavisPlus at http://davisplus.fadavis.com for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.

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VIGNETTE

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VIGNETTE

  • While leading a group of 10 exercisers through the warm-up portion of a beginner's boot camp class in a park near his downtown training studio, Joey notices that one of his newest clients seems to be having trouble catching her breath. Amanda is a physically fit college student, so seasoned trainer Joey is initially surprised to see her struggling during the body weight squats and dynamic lunges included in the warm-up. However, it is a particularly hot, humid summer day. He quickly approaches to ask Amanda how she is feeling. Amanda quietly says, "I'm okay," and continues exercising. Joey decides to keep a close eye on Amanda as her exercise intensity increases.

    As soon as higher-intensity activities, such as jumping rope and box jumps, are introduced, it becomes clear that Amanda is struggling with shortness of breath, or dyspnea. Her respiratory rate (RR) is fast, and she looks uncomfortable. Joey comes to Amanda's side and can see that her breathing is labored, and her shortness of breath appears to be getting severe.

    What could be causing Amanda's dyspnea?

  • Joey suspects that Amanda is experiencing EIA. In addition to shortness of breath, Amanda has begun wheezing and coughing, and she is complaining of chest tightness. Joey also recalls that she exhibited some difficulty talking during the warm-up, another telltale sign of an asthma attack. He can tell that she is breathing with her abdominal, chest, and back muscles. She looks sweaty and is beginning to act panicky. Joey needs to act quickly before her symptoms become even more severe.

  • Joey guides Amanda to gradually reduce her exercise intensity so that she is able to easily administer rescue medication via her prescribed inhaler. At first, Amanda says she can "push through" the episode, but Joey knows this goes against protocol for managing an EIA incident. Once Amanda's symptoms subside, Joey instructs Amanda to sit in the shade and drink some fluids to cool off. He reminds her to breathe deeply, in through the nose and out ...

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