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INTRODUCTION

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This unit investigates each upper extremity and axial skeleton body segment from a clinical kinesiological perspective. Anatomy is summarized in tables with the body of each chapter presenting information on the unique joint, arthrokinematics, osteokinematics, and clinical functions of each segment.

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Chapter 5 presents the shoulder complex. The shoulder complex includes the scapulothoracic, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral joints. The relationship between these structures is discussed, and the muscles are presented along with their functions for each joint. Additionally, how these joints interact with each other to produce smooth, effective shoulder movement is presented.

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Chapter 6 addresses the elbow and forearm joints. The discussion includes the interaction between the muscles functioning at both of these joints and how they affect each other. The importance of synergistic functions of the elbow and forearm muscle groups is discussed.

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Chapter 7 presents the wrist and hand, a complex structure. The multiple joints and muscles providing optimal performance of the hand and how the hand's unique functions are accomplished are discussed in this chapter. The various types of power and prehension grips are presented along with pathologies in these grips that occur with muscle or neural injuries.

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Chapter 8 investigates the axial skeleton. The spine from the cervical region to the sacroiliac joint is presented along with information on the temporomandibular joint. The axial skeleton is a complex segment of the body that often determines the quality of activity possible in the extremities, so the relationship between the spine and extremities is presented along with elements of trunk stabilization and balance.

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