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INTRODUCTION

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The first unit of the text introduces you to the basics of kinesiology. Chapter 1 provides information on the kinematics of kinesiology. Information is presented on planes of motion and axes within the body, various kinds of joints and their classifications, kinematic chain concepts, open- and close-packed positions of the joints, degrees of freedom of joints, and why this information is important to the understanding of clinical kinesiology.

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Chapter 2 introduces kinetics. Kinetics deals with forces. Within this chapter, the types of forces applied to the body are discussed along with Newton's Laws of Motion, and vectors. Included in vectors is an expanded discussion on composition or makeup of forces. Additionally, various levers and torques and how they occur in the body are presented. To add to the understanding of force applications in functional applications, how the body deals with these forces and how clinicians are able to estimate these forces are discussed.

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Chapter 3 moves into the physiology of the neuromuscular system and how the unique interactions between the neural and muscle systems allow the body to respond to stimulations within the environment. A discussion of muscle fiber structure, types, motor units, nerve fibers, and joint receptors is presented in an effort to further understand the dynamic interrelationship between these systems.

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Chapter 4 provides information on muscle strength—specifically, the types of muscle contraction, how the muscles function against gravity and outside forces, and how the structure and physiology of muscle determine strength output of any muscle. A brief discussion on how strength is measured is also presented.

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