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diphtheria antitoxin

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1. The protective antibody formed after exposure to Corynebacterium diphtheriae or its toxoid. The object of immunization with diphtheria toxoid is to develop high enough titers of this antibody to prevent diphtheria on subsequent exposures. 2. Solution containing preformed antibodies to C. diphtheriae, used to treat diphtheria. Skin tests to assess for type III hypersensitivity are necessary before administration because the solution is obtained from animal serum.

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diphtheroid

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(dĭf′thĕ-royd) [″ + eidos, form, shape] 1. Resembling diphtheria or the bacteria that cause diphtheria. 2. A false membrane or pseudomembrane not due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Diphyllobothrium

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(dī-fil″ō-both′rē-ŭm) [L. Diphyllobothrium, fr di- + Gr. phyllon, leaf + Gr. bothrion, pit] A genus of tapeworm of the order Pseudophyllidea, marked by a scolex with two bothria (slitlike grooves). The genus was formerly called Dibothriocephalus. SEE: Pseudophyllidea.

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D. latum A species that is native to Scandinavia, the Baltics, and western Russia, and is now found in North America, esp. the Pacific Northwest, that infests fish and mammals. The adult lives in the intestine of fish-eating mammals, including humans. It is the largest tapeworm infesting humans and may reach a length of 50 to 60 ft (15.2 to 18.3 m); the average is 20 ft (6.1 m). The eggs develop into ciliated larvae that are eaten by small crustaceans called copepods. The larvae pass through several stages in the copepods and develop further after the copepods are eaten by fish, finally encysting in fish muscle. People acquire the infection by eating raw or poorly cooked fish that contains cysts. Infection can be prevented by thoroughly cooking all freshwater fish or by keeping the fish frozen at −10°C (14°F) for 48 hr before eating. SYN: broad tapeworm; fish tapeworm. SEE: illus.

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DIPHYLLOBOTHRIUM LATUM

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Passed in patient's stool.

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 SYMPTOMS: Patients often report abdominal pain, weight loss , digestive disorders, progressive weakness, and symptoms of pernicious anemia because the worm absorbs ingested vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract.

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 TREATMENT: Praziquantel is used to treat the infestation.

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diplegia

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(dī-plē′jē-ă) [Gr. dis, twice, + plege, a stroke] 1. Paralysis of similar parts on both sides of the body. 2. In cerebral palsy, excessive stiffness usually occurs in all limbs but greater stiffness in the legs than in the arms. diplegic (-jĭk), adj.

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spastic d. Congenital spastic stiffness of the limbs.

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diplo-

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[Gr. diploos, twofold, double] Prefix meaning double or twin.

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diploblastic

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(dip″lō-blas′tik) [diplo- + -blast] Of the ectoderm and the endoderm, having two germ layers.

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diplococcus

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(dĭp″lō-kŏk′ŭs) pl....

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