cancer grading and staging
Any standardized procedure for expressing cancer cell differentiation and the extent of the spread of the cancer. Cancer is graded on the differentiation of the tumor cells and the number of mitoses present. These are correlated with the ability of the tumor to grow and spread. Some cancers are graded I to IV, the latter being the most anaplastic and having the least resemblance to normal tissue. Cancers are staged according to size of the primary tumor and according to the presence of its spread to other tissues (metastasis). There are two major staging systems: the TNM classification judges the size of primary tumor (T), evidence of regional extension or nodes (N), and evidence of metastases (M); the second system classifies cancers as Stage 0 to IV according to the size of the tumor and its spread. Cancer grading and staging usually involve some combination of imaging studies (to determine if a tumor has spread around the body), laboratory tests (to identify tumor markers), surgical exploration and resection, and pathological examination of tissues.
(kan″sĕr-ĭ-sīd′ăl) [cancer + -cide, killing] Lethal to malignant cells.
(kăn″sĕr-ĭ-jĕn′ĭk) [″ + Gr. gennan, to produce] Carcinogenic.
Cancer Information Service
A program sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that provides cancer information to patients and their families, health professionals, and the general public. Information may be obtained by calling the toll-free number 1-800-4-CANCER.
(kan′sĕr-lit″) [cancer + lit(erature)] A database of published information about cancer, including its causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
(kăn″sĕr-ō-jĕn′ĭk) [″ + Gr. gennan, to produce] Carcinogenic.
(kan″sĕr-ŏ-fō′bē-ă) [cancer + -phobia] A phobia of cancer.
(kăn′sĕr-ŭs) Pert. to malignant growth.
cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome
ABBR: CAC. Loss of appetite, body fat, and muscle mass in patients with advanced cancers.
A person's fear of developing cancer or succumbing to it.
(kăng′kră) Pl. of cancrum.
(kăng′kroyd) [″ + Gr. eidos, form, shape] 1. Like a cancer. 2. A type of keloid. 3. Epithelioma.
(kăng′krŭm) pl. cancra [L. cancer, crab, creeping ulcer] A rapidly spreading ulcer.