A general term for hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. SEE: hypercalcemia; hypocalcemia.
calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease
(kăl″sē-ū′rē-ă) [″ + Gr. ouron, urine] Calcium in the urine.
(kal″kō-floo′ŏr) SEE: under stain.
(kăl″kō-sfē′rīt) [″ + Gr. sphaira, sphere] A small, calcified body found in specimens of the prostate, the thyroid, and some tumors.
(kăl″kū-lō-jĕn′ĕ-sĭs) [″ + Gr. genesis, generation, birth] The formation of stones.
(kal′kyŭ-lŭs, kal′kyŭ-lī″, kal′kyŭ-lē″) pl. calculi [L. calculus, pebble] A stone, usually composed of mineral salts. Stones can occur in the gallbladder, kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. SEE: gallstone; kidney stone.
dental c. Mineralized dental plaque, located above or below the gums.
pancreatic c. A calculus in the pancreas, made of calcium carbonate with other salts and inorganic materials.
prostatic c. A stone in the prostate.
renal c. A calculus in the kidney that may block urine flow. If the ureter is blocked by the stone, there is sudden, severe, and paroxysmal renal colic often combined with chills, fever, hematuria, and frequency of urination. If stones do not pass spontaneously, they should be removed.
DIAGNOSIS: Plain abdominal x-rays reveal calcium-containing kidney stones. When x-rays are not definitive, ultrasonography of the kidneys or computed tomography (CT) scanning of the abdomen can be used to establish the diagnosis. CT carries an increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation.
TREATMENT: Pain relief and hydration should be priorities. Alpha blocking drugs (such as tamsulosin) help in relaxing urinary smooth muscles, passing the stone, and relieving pain. If the stone is >10 mm in diameter, preventing urine flow or causing infection, ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, or surgery may be performed. SYN: kidney stone; lithiasis nephritica; lithiasis renalis; urolith.; SEE: extracorporeal shock-wave lithotriptor; laser treatment for kidney stone removal.
salivary c. Salivary stone.
urinary c. A stone formed in the urinary tract, usually lodged in the renal pelvis (at the ureteropelvic junction) and/or kidney calyces. SEE: lithotriptor.
INCIDENCE: Men in the U.S. have a 13% probability of forming urinary stones sometime during their lives. Women's lifetime incidence of kidney stone disease is approx. 7%.
CAUSES: Stones vary in composition, but most often (80% of the time) contain calcium. Other chemical constituents of stones are oxalates, phosphates, carbonates, cystine, urates, and struvite (ammonium, magnesium, and phosphate).
Struvite calculi, which account for about 15% of all stones, are found primarily ...