(blēd′ĕr) [AS. bledan, to bleed] 1. A colloquial term for one whose ability to coagulate blood is either deficient or absent, so that small cuts and injuries lead to prolonged bleeding. SEE: hemophilia. 2. A colloquial term for a small artery that has been cut or torn.
(blēd′ing) 1. The emission of blood, as from an injured vessel. 2. The process of emitting blood, as during hemorrhage or in the procedure of blood letting.
Normally, when blood is exposed to air, it changes to allow fibrin to form. This entangles the cells and forms a blood clot. SEE: blood coagulation; coagulation factor; hemorrhage.
abnormal uterine b. Dysfunctional uterine b.
arterial b. Bleeding in spurts of bright red blood from an artery.
EMERGENCY CARE: Arterial bleeding may be controlled by applying pressure with the fingers at the nearest pressure point between it and the heart. The artery is located and digital pressure is applied above it until bleeding stops or until the artery is ligated or repaired. When a pressure point is ineffective in controlling arterial bleeding on an extremity, a tourniquet may be needed. SEE: table.
Control of Arterial Bleeding
|Artery ||Course ||Bone Involved ||Spot to Apply Pressure |
|For Wounds of the Face |
|Temporal ||Upward ½ in (13 mm) in front of ear ||Temporal bone ||Against bony prominence immediately in front of ear or on temple |
|Facial ||Upward across jaw diagonally ||Lower part of lower maxilla ||1 in (2.5 cm) in front of angle of lower jaw |
|For Wounds of the Upper Extremity |
|Axillary ||Downward across outer side of armpit to inside of humerus ||Head of humerus ||High up in armpit against upper part of humerus |
|Brachial ||Along inner side of humerus under edge of biceps muscle ||Shaft of humerus ||Against shaft of humerus by pulling aside and gripping biceps, pressing tips of fingers deep down against bone |
|For Wounds of the Lower Extremity |
|Femoral ||Down thigh from pelvis to knee from a point midway between iliac spine and symphysis pubis to inner side of end of femur at knee joint ||Brim of pelvis ||Against brim of pelvis, midway between iliac spine and symphysis pubis |
|Posterior tibial ||Downward to foot in hollow just behind prominence of inner ankle ||Inner side of tibia, low down above ankle ||For wounds in sole of foot, against tibia in center of hollow behind inner ankle |
breakthrough b. Intermenstrual spotting or bleeding experienced by some women who are taking oral contraceptives.
clinically significant b. Bleeding that causes hemodynamic instability (blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg or pulse more than 100 beats per min) or requires a transfusion of more than 2 units of blood in 24 hours.