Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy.
American Psychiatric Nurses Association.
advanced practice nurse-clinical specialist.
(ap-nē′ă, ap′nē-ă) [1an- + -pnea] Temporary cessation of breathing and, therefore, of the body's intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide. It is a serious symptom, esp. in patients with other potentially life-threatening conditions. SEE: apnea monitoring; Cheyne-Stokes respiration; sleep a.; sudden infant death syndrome.
central a. Apnea that occurs during sleep when the respiratory center of the brainstem does not send normal periodic signals to the muscles of respiration. Observation of the patient shows no respiratory effort (no movement of the chest, and no breath sounds).
deglutition a. Apnea while swallowing.
mixed a. Apnea during sleep that combines elements of obstructive and central sleep apneas.
obstructive a. Apnea that occurs when the upper airway is intermittently blocked during sleep. Observation of the patient reveals vigorous but ineffective respiratory efforts, often accompanied by loud snoring or snorting.
obstructive sleep a. ABBR: OSA. Sleep a.
a. of prematurity ABBR: AOP. Apnea in the premature newborn, marked by repeated episodes of apnea lasting longer than 20 sec. The diagnosis of AOP is one of exclusion, arrived at when no treatable cause can be found. Increased frequency of apneic episodes directly relates to the degree of prematurity. AOP is not an independent risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Apneic episodes may result in bradycardia, hypoxia, and respiratory acidosis.
TREATMENT: Tactile stimulation of the newborn is often successful if apneic spells are very mild and promptly recognized. When gentle stimulation does not produce a response, bag and mask ventilation is initiated. Methylxanthines such as caffeine are helpful. Caffeine infusions may be stopped when newborns have no significant interruption in breathing for five days and reach 33 weeks of postmenstrual age.
PATIENT CARE: Care includes maintenance of a neutral thermal environment, avoidance of prolonged oral feedings, use of tactile stimulation early in the apneic episode, and ventilatory support as needed. The infant who has experienced and survived an episode of apnea is maintained on cardiac and respiratory monitoring devices. Before discharge, parents are taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of monitoring equipment, and how to recognize signs of medication toxicity if medications are used.
sleep a. Apnea during sleep. It is classified according to the mechanism involved and by whether or not it is associated with daytime sleepiness. SYN: obstructive sleep a.
In obstructive sleep apnea, vigorous respiratory efforts are present during sleep but the flow of ...