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ranine

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(rā′nīn) [L. rana, a frog] 1. Pert. to a ranula, or the region beneath the tip of the tongue. 2. The branch of the lingual artery supplying that area. 3. Pert. to frogs.

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ranitidine

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(ră-ní′tĭ-dēn) A histamine H2 antagonist and antiulcer agent, administered orally or intravenously for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers and benign gastric ulcers.

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Rankin scale, Rankin score

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Modified Rankin scale.

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ranula

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(ran′yŭ-lă) [L., ranula, a little frog] A cystic tumor seen on the underside of the tongue on either side of the frenum. It is a retention cyst of the submandibular or sublingual ducts.The swelling may be small or large.

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SYMPTOMS: The tumor is semitranslucent, with soft, dilated veins coursing over it. The patient experiences fullness and discomfort, but usually no pain. The tumor contains clear fluid owing to dilatation of the salivary glands and obstruction of the sublingual mucous glands.

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TREATMENT: Periodic emptying of the sac by careful needle aspiration provides temporary relief. Surgical intervention is required for complete removal.

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Ranvier node

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(ron-vē-ā′) [Louis A. Ranvier, Fr. pathologist, 1835–1922] A space between adjacent Schwann cells along a nerve fiber; no myelin sheath is present. SYN: neurofibril node. SEE: nerve fiber; neuron for illus.; Schwann cell.

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RAO

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right anterior oblique position.

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rape

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(rāp) [L. rapere, to seize] Sexual assault or sexual violence perpetrated on one person by another against the will of the victim. Rape involves an attempt at or actual penetration of the vagina or another body orifice by a penis, finger, other body part, or inanimate object. A majority of rapes are inflicted by someone known to the victim. SEE: rape and sexual assault prevention; syndrome, rape-trauma; sexual abuse.

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INCIDENCE: Approximately 620,000 women 18 years and older were forcibly raped in 2010. Some studies have indicated that an incident involving rape occurs about every 2.5 min, and that 1 out of 6 women will be raped sometime during her life.

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SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: Complete penetration by the penis or emission of seminal fluid is not necessary to constitute rape. Most rapes include force, intimidation, or violence, but acquiescence because of verbal threats does not indicate consent

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DIAGNOSIS: When an episode of rape is reported, the event has profound personal, medical, social, and legal ramifications. In patients who present for immediate evaluation, e.g., at an Emergency Department or Women's Health Clinic, the sexual assault nurse examiner plays a crucial role in providing comfort to the patient, performing a thorough and compassionate diagnostic evaluation, and collecting forensic evidence .

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