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penalization

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(pēn″ĭl-ĭ-zā′ shĭn, pĕn″) An ophthalmological treatment for an eye with weak vision in which the vision from the healthier eye is blunted, blurred, or blocked so that the weaker eye must be relied upon. It is one form of treatment for amblyopia.

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pencil

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(pĕn-sĭl) A material rolled into cylindrical form; may contain a caustic substance or a therapeutic paste or ointment.

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Pender, Nola J.

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(pĕn′ der) A U.S. nursing educator and researcher, born 1941, who developed and refined the Health Promotion Model nursing theory. SEE: Health Promotion Model.

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Pendred syndrome

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(pen′ dred″) [Vaughan Pendred, Brit. surgeon, 1869–1946] An autosomal recessive disease that causes progressive childhood sensorineural hearing loss and often causes goiter either with or without hypothyroidism.

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pendular

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(pen′jŭ-lăr) [L. pendulus, hanging] Hanging so as to swing by an attached part; oscillating like a pendulum.

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pendulous

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(pen′jŭ-lŭs) [L. pendulus, hanging] Swinging or swinging freely like a pendulum.

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penectomy

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(pĕn-ĕk′tŏ-mē) Surgical or traumatic removal of the penis.

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penetrance

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(pĕn′ĕ-trăns) 1. The frequency of manifestation of a hereditary condition in individuals. In theory, if the genotype is present, penetrance should be 100%. That is not usually the case, as a result of the modifying effects of other genes. 2. The extent to which something enters an object.

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penetrate

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(pĕn′ĕ-trāt) [L. penetrare] To enter or force into the interior; pierce.

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penetrating

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(pĕn′ĕ-trāt-ĭng) Entering beyond the exterior.

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p. power The capacity of a lens to see into an object.

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penetration

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(pĕn″ĕ-trā′shŭn) [L. penetrare, to go within] 1. The process of entering within a part. 2. The capacity to enter within a part. 3. The power of a lens to give a clear focus at varying depths. 4. The ability of radiation to pass through a substance.

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penetrometer

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(pĕn″ĕ-trŏm′ĕ-tĕr) [″ + Gr. metron, measure] An instrument that compares roughly the comparative absorption of x-rays in various metals, esp. silver, lead, and aluminum; hence, it gives a rough estimation of the ability of x-rays to penetrate tissues. SYN: qualimeter.

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-penia

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[Gr. penia, lack, poverty] Suffix meaning decrease, deficiency.

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penicillin

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(pen″ĭ-sil′ĭn) [Penicillium + -in] Any of a group of antibiotics biosynthesized by several species of molds, esp. Penicillium notatum and P. chrysogenum. Penicillin is bactericidal, inhibiting the growth of some gram-positive bacteria and some spirochetes by interfering with cell wall synthesis. There are many different penicillins, including synthetic ones, and their effectiveness ...

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