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needle exchange program

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A public health program for collecting used hypodermic syringes and exchanging them for sterile ones. Such programs are designed to decrease the spread of diseases (like AIDS and hepatitis C) that are transmitted by the sharing of contaminated needles.

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PATIENT CARE: Syringe-exchange programs reduce the spread of bloodborne illnesses and serve as gateways to other vital medical services for patients at risk, e.g., drug abusers who want to stop, or pregnant women, the mentally ill, malnourished, or those who need vaccination. In its position statement on needle exchange and HIV/AIDS, the American Nursing Association states, "nurses support the availability of needle exchange programs (that) include adherence to public health and infection control guidelines, access for referral to treatment and rehabilitative services, and education about the transmission of HIV disease." Health care professionals must be familiar with federal and state laws about needle exchange. Most programs operate by providing a single sterile needle for each contaminated needle brought in by a client. Contaminated needles brought to exchange programs are treated as biomedical waste products and are managed by these programs according to public health guidelines. SYN: syringe exchange program.

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needleholder

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(nēd′ĕl-hōld′ĕr) A forceps used to drive a needle into tissue, e.g., during suturing.

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needleless intravenous infusion system

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A device for administering intravenous solutions that permits intravascular access without the necessity of handling a needle. These systems were developed to reduce the number of needle-stick injuries related to traditional intravenous administration of fluids. SEE: needlestick injury.

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needlestick, needle-stick, needle-stick injury

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(nēd′ĕl-stik″) Accidental penetration of the skin by any sharp object used in health care. It is estimated that more than 600,000 needlesticks occur each year among health care providers in the U.S.

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Image not available. Needle points, scalpels, sutures, syringes, and other penetrating objects (sharps) that have been used invasively may transmit blood or other bodily fluids from person to person. The most commonly transmitted pathogens are the hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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PATIENT CARE: Under the provisions of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act of 2001, all health care facilities are required to develop exposure and engineering control plans that limit penetrating injuries and are required to maintain logs of such injuries at their facilities.

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Neer test

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(nēr) A clinical assessment to identify impingement of the rotator cuff tendons beneath the acromion. With the elbow extended, the patient's humerus is placed in internal rotation, and the forearm is pronated. The glenohumeral joint is then passively forced through forward flexion as the scapula is stabilized. The test is positive if the patient experiences pain in the anterior or lateral shoulder, typically above 90 degrees.

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NEFA

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nonesterified fatty acids.

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negation

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