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masto-, mast-

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[Gr. mastos, breast] Prefixes meaning breast.

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mastocyte

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(măs′tō-sīt) [Gr. masten, to feed, + kytos, cell] Mast cell.

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mastocytoma

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(mas″tō-sī-tō′mă) [mastocyte + -oma, tumor] A tumor composed of mast cells.

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mastocytosis

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(mas″tŏ-sī-tō′sĭs) [mastocyte + -osis] Any of several rare disorders in which there is proliferation of normal mast cells systemically or on the skin. The lesions on the skin are called urticaria pigmentosa. SEE: urticaria pigmentosa.

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Systemic mastocytosis is marked by infiltration of mast cells into the bone marrow, abdominal organs, and lymph nodes. Many of the signs and symptoms of this illness are due to the mast cells releasing granules containing histamine, prostaglandins, and arachidonic metabolites. SEE: Darier sign under Darier, Ferdinand Jean for illus.

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mastodynia

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(măst-ō-dĭn′ē-ă) [Gr. mastos, breast, + odyne, pain] Pain in the breast. SYN: mammalgia; mastalgia.

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mastoid

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(mas′toyd″) [masto- + -oid] 1. Shaped like a breast. 2. The mastoid process of the temporal bone. 3. Pert. to the mastoid process. mastoidal (mă-stoyd′ăl), adj.

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mastoid antrum

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SEE: under antrum.

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mastoidectomy

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(măs″tŏy-d-ĕk′tō-mē) [″ + ″ + ektome, excision] Surgical excision of the mastoid sinuses used to treat mastoiditis when it has not responded to antibiotic therapy. Recurrent or persistent infections (e.g., cholesteatoma) or signs of intracranial complications (meningitis) are reasons for surgical treatment. The operation may be simple, involving complete removal of the mastoid sinuses, or radical, involving the middle ear, often with surgical reconstruction of the eardrum.

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PATIENT CARE: The patient is prepared physically and psychologically for the surgery, and postoperative care procedures are explained. An informed consent is obtained. Wound dressing is inspected daily and changed as necessary. Aseptic technique is used during dressing changes. Drains usually are removed in 72 hr. The patient is observed postoperatively for bleeding, fever, neck stiffness, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, headache, or facial paralysis. The patient should be assessed for hearing loss after simple mastoidectomy; hearing loss usually precedes the need for radical surgery. After radical surgery, the wound is either drained with a tube, or packed with petroleum gauze or antibiotic-treated gauze, and the patient should have analgesia administered prior to its removal on postoperative day 4 or 5. Antibiotic therapy is continued for several weeks postsurgery. Analgesics are administered as needed and prescribed. Nausea and vertigo are common for several days postoperatively, so side rails should be in place, the patient assisted to ambulate, and antiemetics administered as needed. Other potential complications include damage to the facial nerve with facial muscle paralysis or difficulty swallowing. The patient and family are taught how to change and care for dressings prior to discharge, and advised of the importance of ...

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