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Anatomy

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Upper Respiratory Tract

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Trachea and Bronchial Tree

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Anterior View of Lungs and Thorax

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Posterior View of Lungs and Thorax

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Normal posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph.

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Anatomy of the Bronchopulmonary Tree

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Examination

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Terms Associated With the Examination of the Pulmonary System

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barrel chest: An increased anterior-posterior diameter of the thorax, barrel chest is sometimes associated with pulmonary emphysema.

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cyanosis: A bluish tinge to the skin, cyanosis is caused by low oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.

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digital clubbing: An abnormal finding, digital clubbing is flattening of the normal angle between the base of the nail and its cuticle as well as enlargement of the terminal phalanx.

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flail chest: When ribs are broken in two or more places, this segment of the chest wall moves paradoxically during ventilation.

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fremitus: Palpable vibrations felt through the chest wall (see tactile fremitus and vocal fremitus).

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palpation: The chest is palpated for areas of tenderness, symmetry, amount, and synchrony of thoracic excursion during ventilation, integrity of the rib cage, and position of the mediastinum and vibrations.

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pectus carinatum: The sternum protrudes forward and is abnormally prominent; also called pigeon or chicken breast.

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pectus excavatum: The sternum is abnormally depressed; it is also called funnel chest.

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percussion: See separate listing on Abnormal Breath Sounds below.

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tactile fremitus: Palpable vibrations are felt during ventilation. (See fremitus and vocal fremitus.)

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vocal fremitus: Palpable felt vibrations when the patient is speaking. (See fremitus and tactile fremitus.)

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Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 6.1Terms Used to Describe Breathing
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Respiratory Rate

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