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A

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abruptio placentae Premature detachment of the placenta from the uterus

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accessory movement Movement within a joint and surrounding soft tissues that is necessary for normal range of motion but cannot be voluntarily performed

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accommodating resistance exercise A term used synonymously with isokinetic exercise

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active inhibition A type of stretching exercise in which there is reflex inhibition and subsequent elongation of the contractile elements of muscles

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activity limitation Difficulty executing or inability to perform tasks or actions of daily life. Synonymous with functional limitation.

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adaptation The ability of an organism to change over time in response to a stimulus

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adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A high-energy compound from which the body derives energy

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adhesions Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization, following trauma, or as a complication of surgery, which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved

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aerobic exercise Submaximal, rhythmic, repetitive exercise of large muscle groups, during which the needed energy is supplied by inspired oxygen

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aerobic system An aerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when food is broken down

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amniotic fluid Liquid contained in the amniotic sac. The fetus floats in the fluid, which serves as a cushion against injury and helps maintain a constant fetal body temperature

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anaerobic exercise Exercise that occurs without the presence of inspired oxygen

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anaerobic glycolytic system (lactic acid system) Anaerobic energy system in which ATP is manufactured when glucose is broken down to lactic acid

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arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 difference) The difference between the oxygen content of arterial and venous blood

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arthritis Inflammation of the structures of a joint

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arthrodesis Surgical fusion of boney surfaces of a joint with internal fixation such as pins, nails, plates, and bone grafts; usually done in cases of severe joint pain and instability in which mobility of the joint is a lesser concern

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arthroplasty Any reconstructive joint procedure, with or without a joint implant, designed to relieve pain and/or restore joint motion

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arthroscopy Examination of the internal structures of a joint by means of an endoscopic viewing apparatus inserted into the joint

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arthrotomy Surgical incision into a joint

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ATP-PC system Anaerobic energy system in which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is manufactured when phosphocreatine (PC) is broken down

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atrophy Wasting or reduction of the size of cells, tissues, organs, or body parts

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B

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balance Ability to maintain the body's center of gravity over the base of support

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bursitis Inflammation of a bursa

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C

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capsular pattern Pattern of limitation, characteristic for a given joint, that ...

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