Therapeutic: antipsychotics (conventional)
Schizophrenia. Considered 2nd-line treatment after failure with atypical antipsychotics. Unlabeled Use: Other psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder.
Alters the effect of dopamine in the CNS. Therapeutic Effects: Diminished signs and symptoms of psychoses.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CNS: NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME, extrapyramidal reactions, sedation, tardive dyskinesia, seizures. EENT: blurred vision, dry eyes, lens opacities. CV: hypotension, tachycardia, nonspecific ECG changes. GI: constipation, dry mouth, anorexia, ileus, nausea. GU: urinary retention. Derm: photosensitivity, pigment changes, rashes. Endo: breast enlargement, galactorrhea. Hemat: leukocytosis, leukopenia. Metab: hyperpyrexia. Misc: allergic reactions.
PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS
Examination and Evaluation
Watch for signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, including hyperthermia, diaphoresis, generalized muscle rigidity, altered mental status, tachycardia, changes in blood pressure (BP), and incontinence. Symptoms typically occur within 4–14 days after initiation of drug therapy, but can occur at any time during drug use. Report these signs to the physician immediately.
Assess motor function, and be alert for extrapyramidal symptoms. Report these symptoms immediately, especially tardive dyskinesia, because this problem may be irreversible. Common extrapyramidal symptoms include:
Tardive dyskinesia (uncontrolled rhythmic movement of mouth, face, and extremities, lip smacking or puckering, puffing of cheeks, uncontrolled chewing, rapid or worm-like movements of tongue).
Pseudoparkinsonism (shuffling gait, rigidity, tremor, pill-rolling motion, loss of balance control, difficulty speaking or swallowing, mask-like face).
Akathisia (restlessness or desire to keep moving).
Other dystonias and dyskinesias (dystonic muscle spasms, twisting motions, twitching, inability to move eyes, weakness of arms or legs).
Be alert for new seizures or increased seizure activity, especially at the onset of drug treatment. Document the number, duration, and severity of seizures, and report these findings to the physician immediately.
Assess heart rate, ECG, and heart sounds, especially during exercise (See Appendices G, H). Report immediately a rapid heart rate (tachycardia) or signs of other arrhythmias, including palpitations, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, fainting, and fatigue/weakness.
Assess BP periodically and compare to normal values (See Appendix F). Report low BP (hypotension), especially if patient experiences dizziness or syncope.
Watch for signs of leukocytosis and leukopenia, including fever, sore throat, mucosal lesions, and other signs of infection. Report these signs to the physician immediately.
Monitor signs of allergic reactions, including pulmonary symptoms (laryngeal edema, wheezing, dyspnea) or skin reactions (rash, pruritus, urticaria). Notify physician immediately if these reactions occur.
Guard against falls and trauma (hip fractures, head injury, and so forth) caused by drowsiness, blurred vision, or extrapyramidal symptoms; implement fall prevention strategies (See Appendix E).
Because of the risk of arrhythmias and abnormal BP responses, use caution during aerobic exercise and other forms of therapeutic exercise. Assess exercise tolerance ...
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