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INTRODUCTION

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methylprednisolone (meth-il-pred-nis-oh-lone)

A-Methapred, depMedalone, Depoject, Depo-Medrol, Depopred, Depo-Predate, Duralone, Medralone, Medrol, Meprolone, Rep-Pred, Solu-Medrol

Classification

Therapeutic: anti-inflammatories (steroidal), immunosuppressants

Pharmacologic: corticosteroids

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Indications
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Used systemically and locally in a variety of chronic diseases, including inflammatory, allergic, hematologic, neoplastic, autoimmune disorders, immunosuppressant. May be suitable for alternate-day dosing in the management of chronic illness. Replacement therapy in adrenal insufficiency. Unlabeled Use: Adjunctive therapy of hypercalcemia. Management of acute spinal cord injury. Adjunctive management of nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy.

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Action
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Suppresses inflammation and the normal immune response. Has numerous intense metabolic effects (see Adverse Reactions and Side Effects). Suppresses adrenal function at chronic doses of 4 mg/day. Has negligible mineralocorticoid activity. Therapeutic Effects: Suppression of inflammation and modification of the normal immune response. Replacement therapy in adrenal insufficiency.

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Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
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Adverse reactions/side effects are much more common with high-dose/long-term therapy

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CNS: depression, euphoria, headache, increased intracranial pressure (children only), personality changes, psychoses, restlessness. EENT: cataracts, increased intraocular pressure. CV: hypertension. GI: PEPTIC ULCERATION, anorexia, nausea, vomiting. Derm: acne, decreased wound healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism, petechiae. Endo: adrenal suppression, hyperglycemia. F and E: fluid retention (long-term high doses), hypokalemia, hypokalemic alkalosis. Hemat: THROMBOEMBOLISM, thrombophlebitis. Metab: weight gain, weight loss. MS: muscle wasting, osteoporosis, aseptic necrosis of joints, muscle pain. Misc: cushingoid appearance (moon face, buffalo hump), increased susceptibility to infection.

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PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS

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Examination and Evaluation
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  • Monitor signs of thrombophlebitis (lower extremity swelling, warmth, erythema, tenderness) and thromboembolism (shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, bloody sputum). Notify physician immediately, and request objective tests (Doppler ultrasound, lung scan, others) if thrombosis is suspected. Avoid exercise to the affected extremity and ambulation activities while awaiting further tests and evaluation.

  • Monitor and report signs of peptic ulcer, including heartburn, nausea, vomiting blood, tarry stools, and loss of appetite.

  • Assess signs of increased intracranial pressure in children, including changes in mood and behavior, decreased consciousness, headache, lethargy, seizures, and vomiting. Notify physician of these signs immediately.

  • Assess any muscle or joint pain. Report persistent or increased musculoskeletal pain to determine presence of bone or joint pathology (aseptic necrosis, fracture).

  • Assess muscle strength periodically to determine degree of muscle wasting during long-term use.

  • Measure blood pressure periodically and compare to normal values (See Appendix F). Report a sustained increase in blood pressure (hypertension) to the physician.

  • Assess peripheral edema using girth measurements, volume displacement, and measurement of pitting edema (See Appendix N). Report increased swelling in feet and ankles or a sudden increase in body weight due to fluid retention.

  • Monitor personality changes, including depression, euphoria, restlessness, hallucinations, and psychosis. Notify physician if these changes become problematic.

  • Be alert for signs of low ...

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