Pharmacologic: tricyclic antidepressants
Depression. Unlabeled Use: Chronic pain syndromes. Anxiety. Insomnia.
Potentiates the effect of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS. Has significant anticholinergic properties. Therapeutic Effects: Antidepressant action (may develop only over several weeks).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CNS: drowsiness, fatigue. EENT: blurred vision, dry eyes, dry mouth. CV: ARRHYTHMIAS, hypotension, ECG changes. GI: constipation, drug-induced hepatitis, paralytic ileus, increased appetite, weight gain. GU: urinary retention, decreased libido. Derm: photosensitivity. Endo: changes in blood glucose, gynecomastia. Hemat: blood dyscrasias.
PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS
Examination and Evaluation
Assess heart rate, ECG, and heart sounds, especially during exercise (See Appendices G, H). Immediately report any rhythm disturbances or symptoms of increased arrhythmias, including palpitations, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, fainting, and fatigue/weakness.
Be alert for increased depression and suicidal thoughts and ideology, especially when initiating drug treatment or in children and teenagers. Notify physician or mental health professional immediately if patient exhibits worsening depression or other changes in mood and behavior.
Assess blood pressure periodically and compare to normal values (See Appendix F). Report low blood pressure (hypotension), especially if patient experiences dizziness or syncope.
Be alert for signs of leukopenia (fever, sore throat, signs of infection), thrombocytopenia (bruising, nose bleeds, and bleeding gums), or unusual weakness and fatigue that might be due to anemia or other blood dyscrasias. Report these signs to the physician.
Be alert for sedation and fatigue, especially in older adults. Report excessive or prolonged symptoms that could affect balance, gait, and functional activities.
Monitor signs of hypoglycemia (weakness, malaise, irritability, fatigue) or hyperglycemia (drowsiness, fruity breath, increased urination, unusual thirst). Patients with diabetes mellitus should check blood glucose levels frequently.
If used to treat chronic pain, assess pain levels periodically to help determine drug efficacy.
Periodically assess body weight and other anthropometric measures (body mass index, body composition). Report a rapid or unexplained weight gain or increased body fat.
Guard against falls and trauma (hip fractures, head injury, and so forth), and implement fall-prevention strategies (See Appendix E).
Because of the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, use caution during aerobic exercise and endurance conditioning. Assess exercise tolerance frequently (blood pressure, heart rate, fatigue levels), and terminate exercise immediately if any untoward responses occur (see Appendix L).
To minimize orthostatic hypotension, patient should move slowly when assuming a more upright position.
Help patient explore nonpharmacologic methods to reduce depression and anxiety, including exercise, counseling, support groups, and so forth.
If treating neuropathic pain or other pain syndromes, implement appropriate interventions (physical agents, manual techniques, therapeutic exercise) to manage pain and reduce the need for drug therapy. Help patient ...
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